Cannabis has traditionally been cultivated in remote parts of California that often are rich in biodiversity and rare species. 

Because of their locations, there are concerns regarding how these farms interact with the natural environment and if cannabis can be grown sustainably in these locations. 

We ask…

  • What is the water footprint of cannabis cultivation – what are the primary sources of water used for irrigation, when is water diverted, and how much water is diverted, stored, and applied for irrigation?
  • How does cannabis water use affect stream flows needed for the health and survival of endangered species, such as salmon, and other aquatic organisms?
  • What is the impact of cannabis cultivation on wildlife community assembly, interactions, and movement?
  • What mitigation strategies might be effective for reducing local and cumulative impacts?

Current Projects

Policy and Land Use

Relationships between governments, regulations and growers.


Effects of cannabis production on water, air and wildlife.

People and Culture

Effects of liberalization and legalization on policy and society.