Polson, M., Bodwitch, H., Biber, E., Butsic, V., Grantham, T.
There are many barriers to participation in California's regulated cannabis industry. Is there a way to achieve environmental objectives, farmer compliance, and an equitable transition away from illegal markets?
Dillis, C., Butsic, V., Moanga, D., Parker-Shames, P., Wartenberg, A., Grantham, T.
Where should we grow? Explore the vulnerability of California's cannabis agriculture to wildfire.
Wartenberg, A. C., Holden, P. A., Bodwitch, H., Parker-Shames, P., Novotny, T., Harmon, T. C., & Butsic, V.
Environmental Science & Technology Letters
Explore environmental impacts of cannabis production and how evidence-based policy can reduce harms.
Dillis, C., Butsic, V., Carah, J., Zipper, S.C. and Grantham, T.
Environmental Research Communications
Well water irrigates California’s top-producing cannabis farming regions. Why? What are the impacts?
Bodwitch, H., Polson , M., Biber, E., Hickey, G. M., Butsic, V.
Journal of Rural Studies
Despite legalization, illicit cannabis production continues in California. Surveys reveal that small farmers face outsized burdens to compliance.
Parker-Shames, P., Choi, C., Butsic, V. , Green, D., Barry, B., Moriarty, K. , Levi, T., Brashares, J. S.
The Society for Conservation Biology
What are ecological impacts of cannabis legalization? To find out, we mapped the first season of legal cannabis farms in Josephine County, southern Oregon.
Dillis, C., Biber, E., Bodwitch, H., Butsic, V., Carah, J., Parker-Shames, P., Polson, M. and Grantham, T.
Land Use Policy
How has legalization shaped patterns of farm location, size, land ownership, and regulatory compliance in California?
Dillis, C., McIntee, C., Butsic, V., Le, L. Grady, K., & Grantham, T.
Journal of Environmental Management
What cultivation practices help cannabis farmers store enough water to eliminate surface water diversions during California’s dry growing season?
Schwab, B., Wartenberg, A. & Butsic, V.
Are California’s cannabis regulations leading to industry consolidation and larger farms?
Valachovic, Y., Quinn-Davidson, L., Stackhouse, J. and Butsic, V.
What are the impacts of cannabis legalization on traditional rural livelihoods?
Wilson, H., Bodwitch, H., Carah, J., Daane, K., Getz C., Grantham, T. E., & Butsic, V.
Cannabis legalization opens opportunities to study and share best practices. Our survey of growers reveals starting points.
Butsic, V., Carah, J., Baumann, M., Stephens, C. & Brenner, J.C.
Environmental Research Letters
How does California’s rapid expansion of cannabis agriculture into "frontiers" of sensitive habitat compare to regulatory investments? What does this portend for global cannabis frontiers?
Wang, I.J., Brenner, J.C. and Butsic, V.
Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment
A booming cannabis industry expands agriculture into forest habitat. Science offers methods to understand impacts and shape policy.
Butsic, V., Schwab, B., Baumann, M. & Brenner, J.C.
What factors influence the location and size of cannabis cultivation sites?
Butsic, V. & Brenner, J.C.
Environmental Research Letters
Spatial patterns of cannabis grow sites reveal environmental impacts of an expanding industry.