Jennifer Carah
Senior Scientist
The Nature Conservancy
portrait photo
Jennifer works to protect and restore stream flows and address limiting factors to salmonid recovery in California.


Photograph of irrigation infrastructure on a cannabis farm. Includes storage tanks, pipes and fertilizer


Dillis, C., Butsic, V., Carah, J., Zipper, S.C. and Grantham, T.

Environmental Research Communications

Well water irrigates California’s top-producing cannabis farming regions. Why? What are the impacts?

outdoor grow within hillside forest


Dillis, C., Biber, E., Bodwitch, H., Butsic, V., Carah, J., Parker-Shames, P., Polson, M. and Grantham, T.

Land Use Policy

How has legalization shaped patterns of farm location, size, land ownership, and regulatory compliance in California?

Macro-scale photograph of cannabis plant with webs of spider mites, a common pest.


Wilson, H., Bodwitch, H., Carah, J., Daane, K., Getz C., Grantham, T. E., & Butsic, V.

California Agriculture

Cannabis legalization opens opportunities to study and share best practices. Our survey of growers reveals starting points.

Photo of cannabis plants growing outdoors in individual planters with irrigation and a forested background


Bodwitch, H., Carah, J., Daane, K. M., Getz C., Grantham, T. E., Hickey, G. M., & Wilson, H.

California Agriculture

Small cannabis farms are common. Permit licenses are not. A survey of grower incentives and economic implications of California's cannabis legalization.

Satellite image of recently expanded cannabis farm into forests and meadows.


Butsic, V., Carah, J., Baumann, M., Stephens, C. & Brenner, J.C.

Environmental Research Letters

How does California’s rapid expansion of cannabis agriculture into "frontiers" of sensitive habitat compare to regulatory investments? What does this portend for global cannabis frontiers?

photograph of a circular lined pond, full of water, on a forested slope


Carah, J. K., Howard, J. K., Thompson, S.E., Short Gianotti, A. G., Bauer, S.D., Carlson, S. M., Dralle, D. N., Gabriel, M., Hulette, L., Johnson, B.J., Knight, C. A., Kupferberg, S., Martin, S., Naylor, R., and Power, M.


Investment in research, policy and governance can address negative impacts of cannabis cultivation to the environment.